A truck driver (commonly referred to as a trucker, teamster, or driver in the United States and Canada; a truckie in Australia and New Zealand; a HGV driver in the United Kingdom, Ireland and the European Union, a lorry driver, or driver in the United Kingdom, Ireland, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Malaysia and Singapore) is a person who earns a living as the driver of a truck, which is commonly defined as a large goods vehicle (LGV) or heavy goods vehicle (HGV) (usually a semi truck, box truck, or dump truck).
Truck drivers provide an essential service to industrialized societies by transporting finished goods and raw materials over land, typically to and from manufacturing plants, retail, and distribution centers. Truck drivers are responsible for inspecting their vehicles for mechanical items or issues relating to safe operation. Others, such as driver/sales workers, are also responsible for sales, completing additional services such as cleaning, preparation, and entertaining (e.g. cooking, making hot drinks) and customer service Truck drivers work closely with warehouse associates and warehouse workers who assist in loading and unloading shipments.
In Canada, driver hours of service (HOS) regulations are enforced for drivers who operate a "truck, tractor, trailer, or any combination of them that has a gross vehicle weight in excess of 4,500 kg (9,921 lb) or a bus that is designed and constructed to have a designated seating capacity of more than 24 persons, including the driver." However, there are two sets of hours of service rules: one for above 60th parallel north and one for below. Below latitude 60 degrees, drivers are limited to 14 hours on duty in any 24-hour period. These 14 hours include a maximum of 13 hours driving time. Rest periods are 8 consecutive hours in a 24-hour period, as well as an additional 2-hour period of rest that must be taken in blocks of no fewer than 30 minutes.
The concept of "Cycles" refers to the total amount of time drivers can be on duty in a given period before they must take time off. Cycle 1 is 70 hours in a 7-day period and cycle 2 is 120 hours in a 14-day period. Drivers using cycle 1 must take off 36 hours at the end of the cycle before being allowed to restart the cycle again. Cycle 2 is 72 hours off duty before being allowed to start again.
In the European Union, drivers' working hours are regulated by EU (EC) No 561/2006, which entered into force on 11 April 2007. The nonstop driving time may not exceed 4.5 hours. After 4.5 hours of driving, drivers must take a break period of at least 45 minutes, which can be split into 2 breaks, the first being at least 15 minutes and the second being at least 30 minutes.
The daily driving time shall not exceed 9 hours and may be extended to at most 10 hours no more than twice each week. The weekly driving time may not exceed 56 hours. In addition to this, a driver cannot exceed 90 hours driving in a fortnight. Within each 24-hour period after the end of the previous daily or weekly rest period, drivers must take a new daily rest period. An 11-hour (or more) daily rest is called a regular daily rest period. Alternatively, drivers can split a regular daily rest period into two periods. The first period must be at least 3 hours of uninterrupted rest and can be taken at any time during the day. The second must be at least 9 hours of uninterrupted rest for a total minimum rest of 12 hours. Drivers may reduce daily rest periods to no fewer than 9 continuous hours, but this can be done no more than three times between any two weekly rest periods; no compensation for the reduction is required. Daily rests between 9 and 11 hours long are referred to as reduced daily rest periods. Daily rests may be taken in a vehicle as long as it has suitable sleeping facilities and is stationary.
When drivers accompany vehicles transported by ferry or train, daily rest requirements are more flexible.A regular daily rest period may be interrupted no more than twice, but the total interruption must not exceed 1 hour in total. This allows for a vehicle to be driven on to a ferry and off again at the end of the crossing. When the rest period is interrupted in this way, the total accumulated rest period must still be 11 hours. A bunk or couchette must be available during the rest period.
Provided that road safety is not jeopardized, and to enable a driver to reach a suitable stopping place, a departure from the EU rules may be permitted to the extent necessary to ensure the safety of persons, the vehicle, or its load. Drivers must note all reasons for doing so on the back of their tachograph record sheets (if using an analogue tachograph) or on a printout or temporary sheet (if using a digital tachograph) at the latest on reaching the suitable stopping place (see relevant sections covering manual entries). Repeated and regular occurrences, however, might indicate to enforcement officers that employers were not in fact scheduling work to enable compliance with the applicable rules.
In the United States, the hours of service (HOS) of commercial drivers are regulated by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). Commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers are limited to 11 cumulative hours driving in a 14-hour period, following a rest period of no fewer than 10 consecutive hours. Drivers employed by carriers in "daily operation" may not work more than 70 hours, and continue driving, within any period of 8 consecutive days.
Drivers must maintain a daily 24-hour logbook record of duty status documenting all work and rest periods. The record of duty status must be kept current to the last change of duty status and records of the previous seven days retained by the driver in the truck and presented to law enforcement officials on demand.
Truck drivers are paid according to many different methods. These include salary, hourly, and a number of methods which can be broadly defined as piece work. Piece work methods may include both a base rate and additional pay. Base rates either compensate drivers by the mile or by the load.
A company driver who makes a number of "less than truckload" (LTL) deliveries via box truck or conventional tractor-trailer may be paid an hourly wage, a certain amount per mile, per stop (aka "drop" or "dock bump") or per piece delivered, unloaded, or tailgated (i.e., moved to the rear of the trailer).
The main advantage of being paid by the mile may be that a driver is rewarded according to measurable accomplishment. The main disadvantage is that what a driver may accomplish is not so directly related to the effort and, perhaps especially, the time required for completion.
Many of the largest long haul trucking companies in the United States pay their drivers according to short miles. Short miles are the absolute shortest distance between two or more zip codes, literally a straight line drawn across the map. These short miles rarely reflect the actual miles required to pick up and deliver freight, but they will be used to calculate driver earnings.
Short miles are on average about 10% less than actual miles, but in some cases the difference can be as large as 50%. An extreme (but not unheard of) example would be a load that picked up in Brownsville, Texas, and delivered in Miami, Florida, a journey requiring a driver to travel over 1,600 miles. The short routing, however, would measure the distance as only 750 miles, as if the truck could drive across the Gulf of Mexico. Another extreme example would be a load that picked up in Buffalo, New York, and delivered in Green Bay, Wisconsin, not giving any consideration that three of America's Great Lakes lie between that load's origin and destination.
Other obvious obstacles would be mountains and canyons. Truck-prohibited routes sometimes create this same phenomenon, requiring drivers to drive several truck-legal routes and approach a destination from behind (essentially driving a fish hook-shaped route), because the most direct route cannot accommodate heavy truck traffic.
Some trucking companies have tried to alleviate these discrepancies by paying their drivers according to "practical miles." This occurs when dispatchers provide a route to follow and pay the driver accordingly based on the route. This is done to compensate drivers for the actual work done. These routes largely follow the Interstate Highway system but sometimes require drivers to use state and U.S. highways and toll roads. Trucking companies practice this method to attract and retain veteran drivers.Household goods (HHG) miles, from the Household Goods Mileage Guide (aka "short miles") was the first attempt at standardizing motor carrier freight rates for movers of household goods, some say at the behest of the Department of Defense for moving soldiers around the country, long a major source of steady and reliable revenue. Rand McNally, in conjunction with the precursor of the National Moving & Storage Association developed the first Guide published in 1936, at which point it contained only about 300 point-to-point mileages.
While not common, company drivers can also be paid by percentage of the load. This is typically a percentage of revenue, the same as owner-operators, with some company drivers instead paid a percentage of the load profit.
Driver's licenses in Canada, including commercial vehicle licenses, are issued and regulated provincially. Regarding CDLs (commercial drivers licenses), there is no standardization between provinces and territories.
The United States employs a truck classification system, and truck drivers are required to have a commercial driver's license (CDL) to operate a CMV with a gross vehicle weight rating exceeding 26,000 pounds.
Acquiring a CDL requires a skills test (pre-trip inspection and driving test) and knowledge test (written) covering the unique handling qualities of driving a large, heavily loaded commercial vehicle, and the mechanical systems required to operate such a vehicle (air brakes, suspension, cargo securement, et al.), must be declared fit by medical examination no less than every two years.For passenger bus drivers, current passenger endorsements are also required. 041b061a72